Everyone should be treated equally, regardless of race, age, gender -- or sexual orientation. Everyone should have the same right to apply for a job or to rent an apartment without fear of discrimination.
Enlightenment era[ edit ] In eighteenth - and nineteenth-century Europesame-sex sexual behaviour and cross-dressing were widely considered to be socially unacceptable, and were serious crimes under sodomy and sumptuary laws. There were, however, some exceptions.
Although only fragments of his work have survived, it was a humorous anthology of homosexual advocacy, written with an obvious enthusiasm for its subject. Desire is an amatory Impulse of the inmost human Parts: Are not they, however constructed, and consequently impelling, Nature? Social reformer Jeremy Bentham wrote the first known argument for homosexual law reform in England aroundat a time when the legal penalty for buggery was death by hanging.
His advocacy stemmed from his utilitarian philosophyin which the morality of an action is determined by the net consequence of that action on human well-being. He argued that homosexuality was a victimless crime, and therefore not deserving of social approbation or criminal charges.
He regarded popular negative attitudes against homosexuality as an irrational prejudice, fanned and perpetuated by religious teachings.
With the introduction of the Napoleonic Code inthe Duchy of Warsaw also decriminalized homosexuality. Inan anonymous English-language writer wrote a poetic defense of Captain Nicholas Nicholls, who had been sentenced to death in London for sodomy: Whence spring these inclinations, rank and strong?
And harming no one, wherefore call them wrong? The Male Love of Gays and leisbians Greeks"another defence of same-sex love. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. July Learn how and when to remove this template message Karl Heinrich UlrichsGerman gay rights activist of the s In many ways, social attitudes to homosexuality became more hostile during the late Victorian era.
From the s, social reformers began to defend homosexuality, but due to the controversial nature of their advocacy, kept their identities secret. InIves created and founded the first homosexual rights group, the Order of Chaeronea. John Addington Symonds was a poet and an early advocate of male love.
Inhe wrote A Problem in Greek Ethics, a work of what would later be called " gay history. Chaddock for introducing "homosexual" into the English language inSymonds had already used the word in A Problem in Greek Ethics. A Problem in Greek Ethics. Symonds also translated classical poetry on homoerotic themes, and wrote poems drawing on ancient Greek imagery and language such as Eudiades, which has been called "the most famous of his homoerotic poems".
Another friend of Ives was the English socialist poet Edward Carpenter. Carpenter thought that homosexuality was an innate and natural human characteristic and that it should not be regarded as a sin or a criminal offence.
In the s, Carpenter began a concerted effort to campaign against discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientationpossibly in response to the recent death of Symonds, whom he viewed as his campaigning inspiration. Scottish anarchist John Henry Mackay also wrote in defense of same-sex love and androgyny.
English sexologist Havelock Ellis wrote the first objective scientific study of homosexuality inin which he treated it as a neutral sexual condition. Called Sexual Inversion it was first printed in German and then translated into English a year later.
In the book, Ellis argued that same-sex relationships could not be characterized as a pathology or a crime and that its importance rose above the arbitrary restrictions imposed by society.
The book was so controversial at the time that one bookseller was charged in court for holding copies of the work.
Some advocates of free love in the early 20th century, including Russian anarchist and feminist Emma Goldmanalso spoke in defence of same-sex love and challenged repressive legislation. In he formed the Scientific-Humanitarian Committee campaign publicly against the notorious law " Paragraph ", which made sex between men illegal.
The book Sind es Frauen? Women only began to join the previously male-dominated sexual reform movement around when the German government tried to expand Paragraph to outlaw sex between women.
However, the gains made in Germany would soon be drastically reversed with the rise of Nazismand the institute and its library were destroyed in The Swiss journal Der Kreis was the only part of the movement to continue through the Nazi era.
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