Striving for Continuous Improvement: The Experience of U.
Saul McLeodpublished Case studies are in-depth investigations of a single person, group, event or community. Typically, data are gathered from a variety of sources and by using several different methods e.
The research may also continue for an extended period of time, so processes and developments can be studied as they happen. The case study research method originated in clinical medicine the case history, i. The case study is not itself a research method, but researchers select methods of data collection and analysis that will generate material suitable for case studies.
Most of this information is likely to be qualitative i. The data collected can be analyzed using different theories e.
All the approaches mentioned here use preconceived categories in the analysis and they are ideographic in their approach, i. Case studies are widely used in psychology and amongst the best known were the ones carried out by Sigmund Freud. He conducted very detailed investigations into the private lives of his patients in an attempt to both understand and help them overcome their illnesses.
Even today case histories are one of the main methods of investigation in abnormal psychology and psychiatry. For students of these disciplines they can give a vivid insight into what those who suffer from mental illness often have to endure.
Case studies are often conducted in clinical medicine and involve collecting and reporting descriptive information about a particular person or specific environment, such as a school.
In psychology, case studies are often confined to the study of a particular individual. This makes it clear that the case study is a method that should only be used by a psychologist, therapist or psychiatrist, i.
There is an ethical issue of competence. Only someone qualified to diagnose and treat a person can conduct a formal case study relating to atypical i. The procedure used in a case study means that the researcher provides a description of the behavior. This comes from interviews and other sources, such as observation.
The client also reports detail of events from his or her point of view. The researcher then writes up the information from both sources above as the case study, and interprets the information.
Interpreting the information means the researcher decides what to include or leave out. A good case study should always make clear which information is factual description and which is an inference or the opinion of the researcher.
Strengths of Case Studies Provides detailed rich qualitative information. Provides insight for further research. Permitting investigation of otherwise impractical or unethical situations.
Because of their in-depth, multi-sided approach case studies often shed light on aspects of human thinking and behavior that would be unethical or impractical to study in other ways. Research which only looks into the measurable aspects of human behavior is not likely to give us insights into the subjective dimension to experience which is so important to psychoanalytic and humanistic psychologists.
Case studies are often used in exploratory research. They can help us generate new ideas that might be tested by other methods. The method is therefore important for psychologists who adopt a holistic point of view i.
The results of the study are not generalizable because we can never know whether the case we have investigated is representative of the wider body of "similar" instances Because they are based on the analysis of qualitative i.
This means that there is a lot of scope for observer bias and it could be that the subjective opinions of the psychologist intrude in the assessment of what the data means.
For example, Freud has been criticized for producing case studies in which the information was sometimes distorted to fit the particular theories about behavior e. Sex Reassignment at Birth: Long-term Review and Clinical Implications.
Analysis of a phobia of a five year old boy. How to reference this article:Case Studies in Criminal Justice Ethics [Michael Braswell, Larry Miller, Joycelyn Pollock] on plombier-nemours.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Building on the success of the popular first edition, the authors provide hypothetical criminal justice scenarios for analysis.
Case studies offer a safe way for educators to begin recognizing and discussing ethical dilemmas they may face in their own work, since no real person is implicated. What’s the best approach to handling an ethical issue? Check out these case studies from colleagues, discussion guides and presentations.
by Alice Domurat Dreger. Republished with kind permission from The Hastings Center Report May/Jun , Volume 28, Issue 3 Pages Subject terms: “Medical ethics,” Surgery, Sexes, Reproductive system, Child development, Babies Abstract.
Ethical issues . Start with a Story The book Start with a Story is a collection of 40+ essays that examine every aspect of the case study method. Included are numerous examples of case studies as well as strategies, tips, examples, ideas, and resources for applying the case method to the science classroom.
Bioethics is the study of the ethical issues emerging from advances in biology and plombier-nemours.com is also moral discernment as it relates to medical policy and practice.
Bioethics are concerned with the ethical questions that arise in the relationships among life sciences, biotechnology, medicine, politics, law, and plombier-nemours.com includes the study of values ("the ethics of the ordinary.